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common.c

/* common.c - common routines for the ldap client tools */
/* $OpenLDAP: pkg/ldap/clients/tools/common.c,v 1.78.2.7 2008/02/11 23:26:38 kurt Exp $ */
/* This work is part of OpenLDAP Software <http://www.openldap.org/>.
 *
 * Copyright 1998-2008 The OpenLDAP Foundation.
 * Portions Copyright 2003 Kurt D. Zeilenga.
 * Portions Copyright 2003 IBM Corporation.
 * All rights reserved.
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
 * modification, are permitted only as authorized by the OpenLDAP
 * Public License.
 *
 * A copy of this license is available in the file LICENSE in the
 * top-level directory of the distribution or, alternatively, at
 * <http://www.OpenLDAP.org/license.html>.
 */
/* ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
 * This file was initially created by Hallvard B. Furuseth based (in
 * part) upon argument parsing code for individual tools located in
 * this directory.   Additional contributors include:
 *   Kurt D. Zeilenga (additional common argument and control support)
 */

#include "portable.h"

#include <stdio.h>

#include <ac/stdlib.h>
#include <ac/signal.h>
#include <ac/string.h>
#include <ac/ctype.h>
#include <ac/unistd.h>
#include <ac/errno.h>
#include <ac/time.h>
#include <ac/socket.h>

#ifdef HAVE_CYRUS_SASL
#ifdef HAVE_SASL_SASL_H
#include <sasl/sasl.h>
#else
#include <sasl.h>
#endif
#endif

#include <ldap.h>

#include "ldif.h"
#include "lutil.h"
#include "lutil_ldap.h"
#include "ldap_defaults.h"
#include "ldap_pvt.h"
#include "lber_pvt.h"

#include "common.h"

/* input-related vars */

/* misc. parameters */
tool_type_t tool_type;
int         contoper = 0;
int         debug = 0;
char        *infile = NULL;
int         dont = 0;
int         referrals = 0;
int         verbose = 0;
int         ldif = 0;
char        *prog = NULL;

/* connection */
char        *ldapuri = NULL;
char        *ldaphost = NULL;
int         ldapport = 0;
int         use_tls = 0;
int         protocol = -1;
int         version = 0;

/* authc/authz */
int         authmethod = -1;
char        *binddn = NULL;
int         want_bindpw = 0;
struct berval     passwd = { 0, NULL };
char        *pw_file = NULL;
#ifdef HAVE_CYRUS_SASL
unsigned    sasl_flags = LDAP_SASL_AUTOMATIC;
char        *sasl_realm = NULL;
char        *sasl_authc_id = NULL;
char        *sasl_authz_id = NULL;
char        *sasl_mech = NULL;
char        *sasl_secprops = NULL;
#endif

/* controls */
int         assertctl;
char        *assertion = NULL;
char        *authzid = NULL;
/* support deprecated early version of proxyAuthz */
#define LDAP_CONTROL_OBSOLETE_PROXY_AUTHZ "2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.12"
#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_OBSOLETE_PROXY_AUTHZ
char        *proxydn = NULL;
#endif /* LDAP_CONTROL_OBSOLETE_PROXY_AUTHZ */
int         manageDIT = 0;
int         manageDSAit = 0;
int         noop = 0;
int         ppolicy = 0;
int         preread = 0;
static char *preread_attrs = NULL;
int         postread = 0;
static char *postread_attrs = NULL;
ber_int_t   pr_morePagedResults = 1;
struct berval     pr_cookie = { 0, NULL };
#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_X_CHAINING_BEHAVIOR
int         chaining = 0;
static int  chainingResolve = -1;
static int  chainingContinuation = -1;
#endif /* LDAP_CONTROL_X_CHAINING_BEHAVIOR */
#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_X_SESSION_TRACKING
static int  sessionTracking = 0;
struct berval     stValue;
#endif /* LDAP_CONTROL_X_SESSION_TRACKING */

LDAPControl *unknown_ctrls = NULL;
int         unknown_ctrls_num = 0;

/* options */
struct timeval    nettimeout = { -1 , 0 };

typedef int (*print_ctrl_fn)( LDAP *ld, LDAPControl *ctrl );

static int print_preread( LDAP *ld, LDAPControl *ctrl );
static int print_postread( LDAP *ld, LDAPControl *ctrl );
static int print_paged_results( LDAP *ld, LDAPControl *ctrl );
#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_PASSWORDPOLICYREQUEST
static int print_ppolicy( LDAP *ld, LDAPControl *ctrl );
#endif

static struct tool_ctrls_t {
      const char  *oid;
      unsigned    mask;
      print_ctrl_fn     func;
} tool_ctrl_response[] = {
      { LDAP_CONTROL_PRE_READ,                  TOOL_ALL,   print_preread },
      { LDAP_CONTROL_POST_READ,                 TOOL_ALL,   print_postread },
      { LDAP_CONTROL_PAGEDRESULTS,              TOOL_SEARCH,      print_paged_results },
#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_PASSWORDPOLICYREQUEST
      { LDAP_CONTROL_PASSWORDPOLICYRESPONSE,          TOOL_ALL,   print_ppolicy },
#endif
      { NULL,                                   0,          NULL }
};

/* "features" */
enum { Intr_None = 0, Intr_Abandon, Intr_Cancel, Intr_Ignore }; 
static volatile sig_atomic_t  gotintr, abcan;


#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_X_SESSION_TRACKING
static int
st_value( LDAP *ld, struct berval *value )
{
      char        *ip = NULL, *name = NULL;
      struct berval     id = { 0 };
      char        namebuf[ MAXHOSTNAMELEN ];

      if ( gethostname( namebuf, sizeof( namebuf ) ) == 0 ) {
            struct hostent    *h;
            struct in_addr    addr;

            name = namebuf;

            h = gethostbyname( name );
            if ( h != NULL ) {
                  AC_MEMCPY( &addr, h->h_addr, sizeof( addr ) );
                  ip = inet_ntoa( addr );
            }
      }

#ifdef HAVE_CYRUS_SASL
      if ( sasl_authz_id != NULL ) {
            ber_str2bv( sasl_authz_id, 0, 0, &id );

      } else if ( sasl_authc_id != NULL ) {
            ber_str2bv( sasl_authc_id, 0, 0, &id );

      } else 
#endif /* HAVE_CYRUS_SASL */
      if ( binddn != NULL ) {
            ber_str2bv( binddn, 0, 0, &id );
      }

      if ( ldap_create_session_tracking_value( ld,
            ip, name, LDAP_CONTROL_X_SESSION_TRACKING_USERNAME,
            &id, &stValue ) )
      {
            fprintf( stderr, _("Session tracking control encoding error!\n") );
            return -1;
      }

      return 0;
}
#endif /* LDAP_CONTROL_X_SESSION_TRACKING */

RETSIGTYPE
do_sig( int sig )
{
      gotintr = abcan;
}

void
tool_init( tool_type_t type )
{
      tool_type = type;
      ldap_pvt_setlocale(LC_MESSAGES, "");
      ldap_pvt_bindtextdomain(OPENLDAP_PACKAGE, LDAP_LOCALEDIR);
      ldap_pvt_textdomain(OPENLDAP_PACKAGE);
}

void
tool_destroy( void )
{
#ifdef HAVE_CYRUS_SASL
      sasl_done();
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_TLS
      ldap_pvt_tls_destroy();
#endif

      if ( ldapuri != NULL ) {
            ber_memfree( ldapuri );
            ldapuri = NULL;
      }

      if ( pr_cookie.bv_val != NULL ) {
            ber_memfree( pr_cookie.bv_val );
            pr_cookie.bv_val = NULL;
            pr_cookie.bv_len = 0;
      }
}

void
tool_common_usage( void )
{
      static const char *const descriptions[] = {
N_("  -c         continuous operation mode (do not stop on errors)\n"),
N_("  -d level   set LDAP debugging level to `level'\n"),
N_("  -D binddn  bind DN\n"),
N_("  -e [!]<ext>[=<extparam>] general extensions (! indicates criticality)\n")
N_("             [!]assert=<filter>     (a RFC 4515 Filter string)\n")
N_("             [!]authzid=<authzid>   (\"dn:<dn>\" or \"u:<user>\")\n")
#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_OBSOLETE_PROXY_AUTHZ
#if 0
                 /* non-advertized support for proxyDN */
N_("             [!]proxydn=<dn>        (a RFC 4514 DN string)\n")
#endif
#endif
#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_X_CHAINING_BEHAVIOR
N_("             [!]chaining[=<resolveBehavior>[/<continuationBehavior>]]\n")
N_("                     one of \"chainingPreferred\", \"chainingRequired\",\n")
N_("                     \"referralsPreferred\", \"referralsRequired\"\n")
#endif /* LDAP_CONTROL_X_CHAINING_BEHAVIOR */
N_("             [!]manageDSAit\n")
N_("             [!]noop\n")
#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_PASSWORDPOLICYREQUEST
N_("             ppolicy\n")
#endif
N_("             [!]postread[=<attrs>]  (a comma-separated attribute list)\n")
N_("             [!]preread[=<attrs>]   (a comma-separated attribute list)\n")
N_("             [!]relax\n")
#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_X_SESSION_TRACKING
N_("             [!]sessiontracking\n")
#endif /* LDAP_CONTROL_X_SESSION_TRACKING */
N_("             abandon, cancel, ignore (SIGINT sends abandon/cancel,\n"
   "             or ignores response; if critical, doesn't wait for SIGINT.\n"
   "             not really controls)\n")
N_("  -f file    read operations from `file'\n"),
N_("  -h host    LDAP server\n"),
N_("  -H URI     LDAP Uniform Resource Identifier(s)\n"),
N_("  -I         use SASL Interactive mode\n"),
N_("  -M         enable Manage DSA IT control (-MM to make critical)\n"),
N_("  -n         show what would be done but don't actually do it\n"),
N_("  -O props   SASL security properties\n"),
N_("  -o <opt>[=<optparam] general options\n"),
N_("             nettimeout=<timeout> (in seconds, or \"none\" or \"max\")\n"),
N_("  -p port    port on LDAP server\n"),
N_("  -P version protocol version (default: 3)\n"),
N_("  -Q         use SASL Quiet mode\n"),
N_("  -R realm   SASL realm\n"),
N_("  -U authcid SASL authentication identity\n"),
N_("  -v         run in verbose mode (diagnostics to standard output)\n"),
N_("  -V         print version info (-VV only)\n"),
N_("  -w passwd  bind password (for simple authentication)\n"),
N_("  -W         prompt for bind password\n"),
N_("  -x         Simple authentication\n"),
N_("  -X authzid SASL authorization identity (\"dn:<dn>\" or \"u:<user>\")\n"),
N_("  -y file    Read password from file\n"),
N_("  -Y mech    SASL mechanism\n"),
N_("  -Z         Start TLS request (-ZZ to require successful response)\n"),
NULL
      };
      const char *const *cpp;

      fputs( _("Common options:\n"), stderr );
      for( cpp = descriptions; *cpp != NULL; cpp++ ) {
            if( strchr( options, (*cpp)[3] ) || (*cpp)[3] == ' ' ) {
                  fputs( _(*cpp), stderr );
            }
      }
}

void tool_perror(
      const char *func,
      int err,
      const char *extra,
      const char *matched,
      const char *info,
      char **refs )
{
      fprintf( stderr, "%s: %s (%d)%s\n",
            func, ldap_err2string( err ), err, extra ? extra : "" );

      if ( matched && *matched ) {
            fprintf( stderr, _("\tmatched DN: %s\n"), matched );
      }

      if ( info && *info ) {
            fprintf( stderr, _("\tadditional info: %s\n"), info );
      }

      if ( refs && *refs ) {
            int i;
            fprintf( stderr, _("\treferrals:\n") );
            for( i=0; refs[i]; i++ ) {
                  fprintf( stderr, "\t\t%s\n", refs[i] );
            }
      }
}


void
tool_args( int argc, char **argv )
{
      int i;

      while (( i = getopt( argc, argv, options )) != EOF ) {
            int crit, ival;
            char *control, *cvalue, *next;
            switch( i ) {
            case 'c':   /* continuous operation mode */
                  contoper++;
                  break;
            case 'C':
                  referrals++;
                  break;
            case 'd':
                  ival = strtol( optarg, &next, 10 );
                  if (next == NULL || next[0] != '\0') {
                        fprintf( stderr, "%s: unable to parse debug value \"%s\"\n", prog, optarg);
                        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
                  }
                  debug |= ival;
                  break;
            case 'D':   /* bind DN */
                  if( binddn != NULL ) {
                        fprintf( stderr, "%s: -D previously specified\n", prog );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }
                  binddn = ber_strdup( optarg );
                  break;
            case 'e':   /* general extensions (controls and such) */
                  /* should be extended to support comma separated list of
                   *    [!]key[=value] parameters, e.g.  -e !foo,bar=567
                   */

                  crit = 0;
                  cvalue = NULL;
                  if( optarg[0] == '!' ) {
                        crit = 1;
                        optarg++;
                  }

                  control = ber_strdup( optarg );
                  if ( (cvalue = strchr( control, '=' )) != NULL ) {
                        *cvalue++ = '\0';
                  }

                  if ( strcasecmp( control, "assert" ) == 0 ) {
                        if( assertctl ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "assert control previously specified\n");
                              exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                        }
                        if( cvalue == NULL ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "assert: control value expected\n" );
                              usage();
                        }

                        assertctl = 1 + crit;

                        assert( assertion == NULL );
                        assertion = cvalue;

                  } else if ( strcasecmp( control, "authzid" ) == 0 ) {
                        if( authzid != NULL ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "authzid control previously specified\n");
                              exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                        }
#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_OBSOLETE_PROXY_AUTHZ
                        if( proxydn != NULL ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "authzid control incompatible with proxydn\n");
                              exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                        }
#endif /* LDAP_CONTROL_OBSOLETE_PROXY_AUTHZ */
                        if( cvalue == NULL ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "authzid: control value expected\n" );
                              usage();
                        }
                        if( !crit ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "authzid: must be marked critical\n" );
                              usage();
                        }

                        assert( authzid == NULL );
                        authzid = cvalue;

#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_OBSOLETE_PROXY_AUTHZ
                  } else if ( strcasecmp( control, "proxydn" ) == 0 ) {
                        if( proxydn != NULL ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "proxydn control previously specified\n");
                              exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                        }
                        if( authzid != NULL ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "proxydn control incompatible with authzid\n");
                              exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                        }
                        if( cvalue == NULL ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "proxydn: control value expected\n" );
                              usage();
                        }
                        if( !crit ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "proxydn: must be marked critical\n" );
                              usage();
                        }

                        assert( proxydn == NULL );
                        proxydn = cvalue;
#endif /* LDAP_CONTROL_OBSOLETE_PROXY_AUTHZ */

                  } else if ( ( strcasecmp( control, "relax" ) == 0 ) ||
                        ( strcasecmp( control, "manageDIT" ) == 0 ) )
                  {
                        if( manageDIT ) {
                              fprintf( stderr,
                                    "relax control previously specified\n");
                              exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                        }
                        if( cvalue != NULL ) {
                              fprintf( stderr,
                                    "relax: no control value expected\n" );
                              usage();
                        }

                        manageDIT = 1 + crit;

                  } else if ( strcasecmp( control, "manageDSAit" ) == 0 ) {
                        if( manageDSAit ) {
                              fprintf( stderr,
                                    "manageDSAit control previously specified\n");
                              exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                        }
                        if( cvalue != NULL ) {
                              fprintf( stderr,
                                    "manageDSAit: no control value expected\n" );
                              usage();
                        }

                        manageDSAit = 1 + crit;

                  } else if ( strcasecmp( control, "noop" ) == 0 ) {
                        if( noop ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "noop control previously specified\n");
                              exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                        }
                        if( cvalue != NULL ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "noop: no control value expected\n" );
                              usage();
                        }

                        noop = 1 + crit;

#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_PASSWORDPOLICYREQUEST
                  } else if ( strcasecmp( control, "ppolicy" ) == 0 ) {
                        if( ppolicy ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "ppolicy control previously specified\n");
                              exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                        }
                        if( cvalue != NULL ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "ppolicy: no control value expected\n" );
                              usage();
                        }
                        if( crit ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "ppolicy: critical flag not allowed\n" );
                              usage();
                        }

                        ppolicy = 1;
#endif

                  } else if ( strcasecmp( control, "preread" ) == 0 ) {
                        if( preread ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "preread control previously specified\n");
                              exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                        }

                        preread = 1 + crit;
                        preread_attrs = cvalue;

                  } else if ( strcasecmp( control, "postread" ) == 0 ) {
                        if( postread ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "postread control previously specified\n");
                              exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                        }

                        postread = 1 + crit;
                        postread_attrs = cvalue;

#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_X_CHAINING_BEHAVIOR
                  } else if ( strcasecmp( control, "chaining" ) == 0 ) {
                        chaining = 1 + crit;

                        if ( cvalue != NULL ) {
                              char  *continuation;

                              continuation = strchr( cvalue, '/' );
                              if ( continuation ) {
                                    /* FIXME: this makes sense only in searches */
                                    *continuation++ = '\0';
                                    if ( strcasecmp( continuation, "chainingPreferred" ) == 0 ) {
                                          chainingContinuation = LDAP_CHAINING_PREFERRED;
                                    } else if ( strcasecmp( continuation, "chainingRequired" ) == 0 ) {
                                          chainingContinuation = LDAP_CHAINING_REQUIRED;
                                    } else if ( strcasecmp( continuation, "referralsPreferred" ) == 0 ) {
                                          chainingContinuation = LDAP_REFERRALS_PREFERRED;
                                    } else if ( strcasecmp( continuation, "referralsRequired" ) == 0 ) {
                                          chainingContinuation = LDAP_REFERRALS_REQUIRED;
                                    } else {
                                          fprintf( stderr,
                                                "chaining behavior control "
                                                "continuation value \"%s\" invalid\n",
                                                continuation );
                                          exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                                    }
                              }
      
                              if ( strcasecmp( cvalue, "chainingPreferred" ) == 0 ) {
                                    chainingResolve = LDAP_CHAINING_PREFERRED;
                              } else if ( strcasecmp( cvalue, "chainingRequired" ) == 0 ) {
                                    chainingResolve = LDAP_CHAINING_REQUIRED;
                              } else if ( strcasecmp( cvalue, "referralsPreferred" ) == 0 ) {
                                    chainingResolve = LDAP_REFERRALS_PREFERRED;
                              } else if ( strcasecmp( cvalue, "referralsRequired" ) == 0 ) {
                                    chainingResolve = LDAP_REFERRALS_REQUIRED;
                              } else {
                                    fprintf( stderr,
                                          "chaining behavior control "
                                          "resolve value \"%s\" invalid\n",
                                          cvalue);
                                    exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                              }
                        }
#endif /* LDAP_CONTROL_X_CHAINING_BEHAVIOR */

                  /* this shouldn't go here, really; but it's a feature... */
                  } else if ( strcasecmp( control, "abandon" ) == 0 ) {
                        abcan = Intr_Abandon;
                        if ( crit ) {
                              gotintr = abcan;
                        }

                  } else if ( strcasecmp( control, "cancel" ) == 0 ) {
                        abcan = Intr_Cancel;
                        if ( crit ) {
                              gotintr = abcan;
                        }

                  } else if ( strcasecmp( control, "ignore" ) == 0 ) {
                        abcan = Intr_Ignore;
                        if ( crit ) {
                              gotintr = abcan;
                        }

#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_X_SESSION_TRACKING
                  } else if ( strcasecmp( control, "sessiontracking" ) == 0 ) {
                        if ( sessionTracking ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "%s: session tracking can be only specified once\n", prog );
                              exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                        }
                        sessionTracking = 1;
#endif /* LDAP_CONTROL_X_SESSION_TRACKING */

                  } else if ( tool_is_oid( control ) ) {
                        LDAPControl *tmpctrls, ctrl;

                        tmpctrls = (LDAPControl *)realloc( unknown_ctrls,
                              (unknown_ctrls_num + 1)*sizeof( LDAPControl ) );
                        if ( tmpctrls == NULL ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "%s: no memory?\n", prog );
                              exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                        }
                        unknown_ctrls = tmpctrls;
                        ctrl.ldctl_oid = control;
                        ctrl.ldctl_value.bv_val = NULL;
                        ctrl.ldctl_value.bv_len = 0;
                        ctrl.ldctl_iscritical = crit;

                        if ( cvalue != NULL ) {
                              struct berval     bv;
                              size_t            len = strlen( cvalue );
                              int         retcode;

                              bv.bv_len = LUTIL_BASE64_DECODE_LEN( len );
                              bv.bv_val = ber_memalloc( bv.bv_len + 1 );

                              retcode = lutil_b64_pton( cvalue,
                                    (unsigned char *)bv.bv_val,
                                    bv.bv_len );

                              if ( retcode == -1 || retcode > bv.bv_len ) {
                                    fprintf( stderr, "Unable to parse value of general control %s\n",
                                          control );
                                    usage();
                              }

                              bv.bv_len = retcode;
                              ctrl.ldctl_value = bv;
                        }

                        unknown_ctrls[ unknown_ctrls_num ] = ctrl;
                        unknown_ctrls_num++;

                  } else {
                        fprintf( stderr, "Invalid general control name: %s\n",
                              control );
                        usage();
                  }
                  break;
            case 'f':   /* read from file */
                  if( infile != NULL ) {
                        fprintf( stderr, "%s: -f previously specified\n", prog );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }
                  infile = ber_strdup( optarg );
                  break;
            case 'h':   /* ldap host */
                  if( ldaphost != NULL ) {
                        fprintf( stderr, "%s: -h previously specified\n", prog );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }
                  ldaphost = ber_strdup( optarg );
                  break;
            case 'H':   /* ldap URI */
                  if( ldapuri != NULL ) {
                        fprintf( stderr, "%s: -H previously specified\n", prog );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }
                  ldapuri = ber_strdup( optarg );
                  break;
            case 'I':
#ifdef HAVE_CYRUS_SASL
                  if( authmethod != -1 && authmethod != LDAP_AUTH_SASL ) {
                        fprintf( stderr, "%s: incompatible previous "
                              "authentication choice\n",
                              prog );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }
                  authmethod = LDAP_AUTH_SASL;
                  sasl_flags = LDAP_SASL_INTERACTIVE;
                  break;
#else
                  fprintf( stderr, "%s: was not compiled with SASL support\n",
                        prog );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
#endif
            case 'M':
                  /* enable Manage DSA IT */
                  manageDSAit++;
                  break;
            case 'n':   /* print operations, don't actually do them */
                  dont++;
                  break;
            case 'o':
                  control = ber_strdup( optarg );
                  if ( (cvalue = strchr( control, '=' )) != NULL ) {
                        *cvalue++ = '\0';
                  }

                  if ( strcasecmp( control, "nettimeout" ) == 0 ) {
                        if( nettimeout.tv_sec != -1 ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "nettimeout option previously specified\n");
                              exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                        }
                        if( cvalue == NULL || cvalue[0] == '\0' ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "nettimeout: option value expected\n" );
                              usage();
                        }
                        if ( strcasecmp( cvalue, "none" ) == 0 ) {
                              nettimeout.tv_sec = 0;
                        } else if ( strcasecmp( cvalue, "max" ) == 0 ) {
                              nettimeout.tv_sec = LDAP_MAXINT;
                        } else {
                              ival = strtol( cvalue, &next, 10 );
                              if ( next == NULL || next[0] != '\0' ) {
                                    fprintf( stderr,
                                          _("Unable to parse network timeout \"%s\"\n"), cvalue );
                                    exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                              }
                              nettimeout.tv_sec = ival;
                        }
                        if( nettimeout.tv_sec < 0 || nettimeout.tv_sec > LDAP_MAXINT ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, _("%s: invalid network timeout (%ld) specified\n"),
                                    prog, (long)nettimeout.tv_sec );
                              exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                        }
                  } else {
                        fprintf( stderr, "Invalid general option name: %s\n",
                              control );
                        usage();
                  }
                  break;
            case 'O':
#ifdef HAVE_CYRUS_SASL
                  if( sasl_secprops != NULL ) {
                        fprintf( stderr, "%s: -O previously specified\n", prog );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }
                  if( authmethod != -1 && authmethod != LDAP_AUTH_SASL ) {
                        fprintf( stderr, "%s: incompatible previous "
                              "authentication choice\n", prog );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }
                  authmethod = LDAP_AUTH_SASL;
                  sasl_secprops = ber_strdup( optarg );
#else
                  fprintf( stderr, "%s: not compiled with SASL support\n", prog );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
#endif
                  break;
            case 'p':
                  if( ldapport ) {
                        fprintf( stderr, "%s: -p previously specified\n", prog );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }
                  ival = strtol( optarg, &next, 10 );
                  if ( next == NULL || next[0] != '\0' ) {
                        fprintf( stderr, "%s: unable to parse port number \"%s\"\n", prog, optarg );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }
                  ldapport = ival;
                  break;
            case 'P':
                  ival = strtol( optarg, &next, 10 );
                  if ( next == NULL || next[0] != '\0' ) {
                        fprintf( stderr, "%s: unable to parse protocol version \"%s\"\n", prog, optarg );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }
                  switch( ival ) {
                  case 2:
                        if( protocol == LDAP_VERSION3 ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "%s: -P 2 incompatible with version %d\n",
                                    prog, protocol );
                              exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                        }
                        protocol = LDAP_VERSION2;
                        break;
                  case 3:
                        if( protocol == LDAP_VERSION2 ) {
                              fprintf( stderr, "%s: -P 2 incompatible with version %d\n",
                                    prog, protocol );
                              exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                        }
                        protocol = LDAP_VERSION3;
                        break;
                  default:
                        fprintf( stderr, "%s: protocol version should be 2 or 3\n",
                              prog );
                        usage();
                  }
                  break;
            case 'Q':
#ifdef HAVE_CYRUS_SASL
                  if( authmethod != -1 && authmethod != LDAP_AUTH_SASL ) {
                        fprintf( stderr, "%s: incompatible previous "
                              "authentication choice\n",
                              prog );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }
                  authmethod = LDAP_AUTH_SASL;
                  sasl_flags = LDAP_SASL_QUIET;
                  break;
#else
                  fprintf( stderr, "%s: not compiled with SASL support\n",
                        prog );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
#endif
            case 'R':
#ifdef HAVE_CYRUS_SASL
                  if( sasl_realm != NULL ) {
                        fprintf( stderr, "%s: -R previously specified\n", prog );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }
                  if( authmethod != -1 && authmethod != LDAP_AUTH_SASL ) {
                        fprintf( stderr, "%s: incompatible previous "
                              "authentication choice\n",
                              prog );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }
                  authmethod = LDAP_AUTH_SASL;
                  sasl_realm = ber_strdup( optarg );
#else
                  fprintf( stderr, "%s: not compiled with SASL support\n",
                        prog );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
#endif
                  break;
            case 'U':
#ifdef HAVE_CYRUS_SASL
                  if( sasl_authc_id != NULL ) {
                        fprintf( stderr, "%s: -U previously specified\n", prog );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }
                  if( authmethod != -1 && authmethod != LDAP_AUTH_SASL ) {
                        fprintf( stderr, "%s: incompatible previous "
                              "authentication choice\n",
                              prog );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }
                  authmethod = LDAP_AUTH_SASL;
                  sasl_authc_id = ber_strdup( optarg );
#else
                  fprintf( stderr, "%s: not compiled with SASL support\n",
                        prog );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
#endif
                  break;
            case 'v':   /* verbose mode */
                  verbose++;
                  break;
            case 'V':   /* version */
                  version++;
                  break;
            case 'w':   /* password */
                  passwd.bv_val = ber_strdup( optarg );
                  {
                        char* p;

                        for( p = optarg; *p != '\0'; p++ ) {
                              *p = '\0';
                        }
                  }
                  passwd.bv_len = strlen( passwd.bv_val );
                  break;
            case 'W':
                  want_bindpw++;
                  break;
            case 'y':
                  pw_file = optarg;
                  break;
            case 'Y':
#ifdef HAVE_CYRUS_SASL
                  if( sasl_mech != NULL ) {
                        fprintf( stderr, "%s: -Y previously specified\n", prog );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }
                  if( authmethod != -1 && authmethod != LDAP_AUTH_SASL ) {
                        fprintf( stderr,
                              "%s: incompatible with authentication choice\n", prog );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }
                  authmethod = LDAP_AUTH_SASL;
                  sasl_mech = ber_strdup( optarg );
#else
                  fprintf( stderr, "%s: not compiled with SASL support\n", prog );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
#endif
                  break;
            case 'x':
                  if( authmethod != -1 && authmethod != LDAP_AUTH_SIMPLE ) {
                        fprintf( stderr, "%s: incompatible with previous "
                              "authentication choice\n", prog );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }
                  authmethod = LDAP_AUTH_SIMPLE;
                  break;
            case 'X':
#ifdef HAVE_CYRUS_SASL
                  if( sasl_authz_id != NULL ) {
                        fprintf( stderr, "%s: -X previously specified\n", prog );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }
                  if( authmethod != -1 && authmethod != LDAP_AUTH_SASL ) {
                        fprintf( stderr, "%s: -X incompatible with "
                              "authentication choice\n", prog );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }
                  authmethod = LDAP_AUTH_SASL;
                  sasl_authz_id = ber_strdup( optarg );
#else
                  fprintf( stderr, "%s: not compiled with SASL support\n", prog );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
#endif
                  break;
            case 'Z':
#ifdef HAVE_TLS
                  use_tls++;
#else
                  fprintf( stderr, "%s: not compiled with TLS support\n", prog );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
#endif
                  break;
            default:
                  if( handle_private_option( i ) ) break;
                  fprintf( stderr, "%s: unrecognized option -%c\n",
                        prog, optopt );
                  usage();
            }
      }

      {
            /* prevent bad linking */
            LDAPAPIInfo api;
            api.ldapai_info_version = LDAP_API_INFO_VERSION;

            if ( ldap_get_option(NULL, LDAP_OPT_API_INFO, &api)
                  != LDAP_OPT_SUCCESS )
            {
                  fprintf( stderr, "%s: ldap_get_option(API_INFO) failed\n", prog );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }

            if (api.ldapai_info_version != LDAP_API_INFO_VERSION) {
                  fprintf( stderr, "LDAP APIInfo version mismatch: "
                        "library %d, header %d\n",
                        api.ldapai_info_version, LDAP_API_INFO_VERSION );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }

            if( api.ldapai_api_version != LDAP_API_VERSION ) {
                  fprintf( stderr, "LDAP API version mismatch: "
                        "library %d, header %d\n",
                        api.ldapai_api_version, LDAP_API_VERSION );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }

            if( strcmp(api.ldapai_vendor_name, LDAP_VENDOR_NAME ) != 0 ) {
                  fprintf( stderr, "LDAP vendor name mismatch: "
                        "library %s, header %s\n",
                        api.ldapai_vendor_name, LDAP_VENDOR_NAME );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }

            if( api.ldapai_vendor_version != LDAP_VENDOR_VERSION ) {
                  fprintf( stderr, "LDAP vendor version mismatch: "
                        "library %d, header %d\n",
                        api.ldapai_vendor_version, LDAP_VENDOR_VERSION );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }

            if (version) {
                  fprintf( stderr, "%s: %s\t(LDAP library: %s %d)\n",
                        prog, __Version,
                        LDAP_VENDOR_NAME, LDAP_VENDOR_VERSION );
                  if (version > 1) exit( EXIT_SUCCESS );
            }

            ldap_memfree( api.ldapai_vendor_name );
            ber_memvfree( (void **)api.ldapai_extensions );
      }

      if (protocol == -1)
            protocol = LDAP_VERSION3;

      if (authmethod == -1 && protocol > LDAP_VERSION2) {
#ifdef HAVE_CYRUS_SASL
            authmethod = LDAP_AUTH_SASL;
#else
            authmethod = LDAP_AUTH_SIMPLE;
#endif
      }

      if( ldapuri == NULL ) {
            if( ldapport && ( ldaphost == NULL )) {
                  fprintf( stderr, "%s: -p without -h is invalid.\n", prog );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }
      } else {
            if( ldaphost != NULL ) {
                  fprintf( stderr, "%s: -H incompatible with -h\n", prog );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }
            if( ldapport ) {
                  fprintf( stderr, "%s: -H incompatible with -p\n", prog );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }
      }

      if( protocol == LDAP_VERSION2 ) {
            if( assertctl || authzid || manageDIT || manageDSAit ||
#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_OBSOLETE_PROXY_AUTHZ
                  proxydn ||
#endif /* LDAP_CONTROL_OBSOLETE_PROXY_AUTHZ */
#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_X_CHAINING_BEHAVIOR
                  chaining ||
#endif
#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_X_SESSION_TRACKING
                  sessionTracking ||
#endif /* LDAP_CONTROL_X_SESSION_TRACKING */
                  noop || ppolicy || preread || postread )
            {
                  fprintf( stderr, "%s: -e/-M incompatible with LDAPv2\n", prog );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }
#ifdef HAVE_TLS
            if( use_tls ) {
                  fprintf( stderr, "%s: -Z incompatible with LDAPv2\n", prog );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_CYRUS_SASL
            if( authmethod == LDAP_AUTH_SASL ) {
                  fprintf( stderr, "%s: -[IOQRUXY] incompatible with LDAPv2\n",
                        prog );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }
#endif
      }
}


LDAP *
tool_conn_setup( int dont, void (*private_setup)( LDAP * ) )
{
      LDAP *ld = NULL;

      if ( debug ) {
            if( ber_set_option( NULL, LBER_OPT_DEBUG_LEVEL, &debug )
                  != LBER_OPT_SUCCESS )
            {
                  fprintf( stderr,
                        "Could not set LBER_OPT_DEBUG_LEVEL %d\n", debug );
            }
            if( ldap_set_option( NULL, LDAP_OPT_DEBUG_LEVEL, &debug )
                  != LDAP_OPT_SUCCESS )
            {
                  fprintf( stderr,
                        "Could not set LDAP_OPT_DEBUG_LEVEL %d\n", debug );
            }
      }

#ifdef SIGPIPE
      (void) SIGNAL( SIGPIPE, SIG_IGN );
#endif

      if ( abcan ) {
            SIGNAL( SIGINT, do_sig );
      }

      if ( !dont ) {
            int rc;

            if( ( ldaphost != NULL || ldapport ) && ( ldapuri == NULL ) ) {
                  /* construct URL */
                  LDAPURLDesc url;
                  memset( &url, 0, sizeof(url));

                  url.lud_scheme = "ldap";
                  url.lud_host = ldaphost;
                  url.lud_port = ldapport;
                  url.lud_scope = LDAP_SCOPE_DEFAULT;

                  ldapuri = ldap_url_desc2str( &url );

            } else if ( ldapuri != NULL ) {
                  LDAPURLDesc *ludlist, **ludp;
                  char        **urls = NULL;
                  int         nurls = 0;

                  rc = ldap_url_parselist( &ludlist, ldapuri );
                  if ( rc != LDAP_URL_SUCCESS ) {
                        fprintf( stderr,
                              "Could not parse LDAP URI(s)=%s (%d)\n",
                              ldapuri, rc );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }

                  for ( ludp = &ludlist; *ludp != NULL; ) {
                        LDAPURLDesc *lud = *ludp;
                        char        **tmp;

                        if ( lud->lud_dn != NULL && lud->lud_dn[ 0 ] != '\0' &&
                              ( lud->lud_host == NULL || lud->lud_host[0] == '\0' ) )
                        {
                              /* if no host but a DN is provided,
                               * use DNS SRV to gather the host list
                               * and turn it into a list of URIs
                               * using the scheme provided */
                              char  *domain = NULL,
                                    *hostlist = NULL,
                                    **hosts = NULL;
                              int   i,
                                    len_proto = strlen( lud->lud_scheme );

                              if ( ldap_dn2domain( lud->lud_dn, &domain )
                                    || domain == NULL )
                              {
                                    fprintf( stderr,
                                          "DNS SRV: Could not turn "
                                          "DN=\"%s\" into a domain\n",
                                          lud->lud_dn );
                                    goto dnssrv_free;
                              }
                              
                              rc = ldap_domain2hostlist( domain, &hostlist );
                              if ( rc ) {
                                    fprintf( stderr,
                                          "DNS SRV: Could not turn "
                                          "domain=%s into a hostlist\n",
                                          domain );
                                    goto dnssrv_free;
                              }

                              hosts = ldap_str2charray( hostlist, " " );
                              if ( hosts == NULL ) {
                                    fprintf( stderr,
                                          "DNS SRV: Could not parse "
                                          "hostlist=\"%s\"\n",
                                          hostlist );
                                    goto dnssrv_free;
                              }

                              for ( i = 0; hosts[ i ] != NULL; i++ )
                                    /* count'em */ ;

                              tmp = (char **)realloc( urls, sizeof( char * ) * ( nurls + i + 1 ) );
                              if ( tmp == NULL ) {
                                    fprintf( stderr,
                                          "DNS SRV: out of memory?\n" );
                                    goto dnssrv_free;
                              }
                              urls = tmp;
                              urls[ nurls ] = NULL;

                              for ( i = 0; hosts[ i ] != NULL; i++ ) {
                                    size_t      len = len_proto
                                          + STRLENOF( "://" )
                                          + strlen( hosts[ i ] )
                                          + 1;

                                    urls[ nurls + i + 1 ] = NULL;
                                    urls[ nurls + i ] = (char *)malloc( sizeof( char ) * len );
                                    if ( urls[ nurls + i ] == NULL ) {
                                          fprintf( stderr,
                                                "DNS SRV: out of memory?\n" );
                                          goto dnssrv_free;
                                    }

                                    snprintf( urls[ nurls + i ], len, "%s://%s",
                                          lud->lud_scheme, hosts[ i ] );
                              }
                              nurls += i;

dnssrv_free:;
                              ber_memvfree( (void **)hosts );
                              ber_memfree( hostlist );
                              ber_memfree( domain );

                        } else {
                              tmp = (char **)realloc( urls, sizeof( char * ) * ( nurls + 2 ) );
                              if ( tmp == NULL ) {
                                    fprintf( stderr,
                                          "DNS SRV: out of memory?\n" );
                                    break;
                              }
                              urls = tmp;
                              urls[ nurls + 1 ] = NULL;

                              urls[ nurls ] = ldap_url_desc2str( lud );
                              if ( urls[ nurls ] == NULL ) {
                                    fprintf( stderr,
                                          "DNS SRV: out of memory?\n" );
                                    break;
                              }
                              nurls++;
                        }

                        *ludp = lud->lud_next;

                        lud->lud_next = NULL;
                        ldap_free_urldesc( lud );
                  }

                  if ( ludlist != NULL ) {
                        ldap_free_urllist( ludlist );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );

                  } else if ( urls == NULL ) {
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }

                  ldap_memfree( ldapuri );
                  ldapuri = ldap_charray2str( urls, " " );
                  ber_memvfree( (void **)urls );
            }

            if ( verbose ) {
                  fprintf( stderr, "ldap_initialize( %s )\n",
                        ldapuri != NULL ? ldapuri : "<DEFAULT>" );
            }
            rc = ldap_initialize( &ld, ldapuri );
            if( rc != LDAP_SUCCESS ) {
                  fprintf( stderr,
                        "Could not create LDAP session handle for URI=%s (%d): %s\n",
                        ldapuri, rc, ldap_err2string(rc) );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }

            if( private_setup ) private_setup( ld );

            /* referrals */
            if( ldap_set_option( ld, LDAP_OPT_REFERRALS,
                  referrals ? LDAP_OPT_ON : LDAP_OPT_OFF ) != LDAP_OPT_SUCCESS )
            {
                  fprintf( stderr, "Could not set LDAP_OPT_REFERRALS %s\n",
                        referrals ? "on" : "off" );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }

            if( ldap_set_option( ld, LDAP_OPT_PROTOCOL_VERSION, &protocol )
                  != LDAP_OPT_SUCCESS )
            {
                  fprintf( stderr, "Could not set LDAP_OPT_PROTOCOL_VERSION %d\n",
                        protocol );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }

            if ( use_tls ) {
                  rc = ldap_start_tls_s( ld, NULL, NULL );
                  if ( rc != LDAP_SUCCESS ) {
                        tool_perror( "ldap_start_tls", rc, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL );
                        if ( use_tls > 1 ) {
                              exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                        }
                  }
            }

            if ( nettimeout.tv_sec > 0 ) {
                  if ( ldap_set_option( ld, LDAP_OPT_NETWORK_TIMEOUT, (void *) &nettimeout )
                        != LDAP_OPT_SUCCESS )
                  {
                        fprintf( stderr, "Could not set LDAP_OPT_NETWORK_TIMEOUT %ld\n",
                              (long)nettimeout.tv_sec );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }
            }
      }

      return ld;
}


void
tool_bind( LDAP *ld )
{
      LDAPControl **sctrlsp = NULL;
      LDAPControl *sctrls[3];
      LDAPControl sctrl[3];
      int         nsctrls = 0;

#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_PASSWORDPOLICYREQUEST
      if ( ppolicy ) {
            LDAPControl c;
            c.ldctl_oid = LDAP_CONTROL_PASSWORDPOLICYREQUEST;
            c.ldctl_value.bv_val = NULL;
            c.ldctl_value.bv_len = 0;
            c.ldctl_iscritical = 0;
            sctrl[nsctrls] = c;
            sctrls[nsctrls] = &sctrl[nsctrls];
            sctrls[++nsctrls] = NULL;
      }
#endif

#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_X_SESSION_TRACKING
      if ( sessionTracking ) {
            LDAPControl c;

            if (stValue.bv_val == NULL && st_value( ld, &stValue ) ) {
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }

            c.ldctl_oid = LDAP_CONTROL_X_SESSION_TRACKING;
            c.ldctl_iscritical = 0;
            ber_dupbv( &c.ldctl_value, &stValue );

            sctrl[nsctrls] = c;
            sctrls[nsctrls] = &sctrl[nsctrls];
            sctrls[++nsctrls] = NULL;
      }
#endif /* LDAP_CONTROL_X_SESSION_TRACKING */

      if ( nsctrls ) {
            sctrlsp = sctrls;
      }

      assert( nsctrls < sizeof(sctrls)/sizeof(sctrls[0]) );

      if ( authmethod == LDAP_AUTH_SASL ) {
#ifdef HAVE_CYRUS_SASL
            void *defaults;
            int rc;

            if( sasl_secprops != NULL ) {
                  rc = ldap_set_option( ld, LDAP_OPT_X_SASL_SECPROPS,
                        (void *) sasl_secprops );

                  if( rc != LDAP_OPT_SUCCESS ) {
                        fprintf( stderr,
                              "Could not set LDAP_OPT_X_SASL_SECPROPS: %s\n",
                              sasl_secprops );
                        exit( LDAP_LOCAL_ERROR );
                  }
            }

            defaults = lutil_sasl_defaults( ld,
                  sasl_mech,
                  sasl_realm,
                  sasl_authc_id,
                  passwd.bv_val,
                  sasl_authz_id );

            rc = ldap_sasl_interactive_bind_s( ld, binddn, sasl_mech,
                  sctrlsp,
                  NULL, sasl_flags, lutil_sasl_interact, defaults );

            lutil_sasl_freedefs( defaults );
            if( rc != LDAP_SUCCESS ) {
                  tool_perror( "ldap_sasl_interactive_bind_s",
                        rc, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL );
                  exit( rc );
            }
#else
            fprintf( stderr, "%s: not compiled with SASL support\n", prog );
            exit( LDAP_NOT_SUPPORTED );
#endif
      } else {
            int msgid, err, rc;
            LDAPMessage *result;
            LDAPControl **ctrls;
            char msgbuf[256];
            char *matched = NULL;
            char *info = NULL;
            char **refs = NULL;

            msgbuf[0] = 0;

            {
                  /* simple bind */
                  rc = ldap_sasl_bind( ld, binddn, LDAP_SASL_SIMPLE, &passwd,
                        sctrlsp, NULL, &msgid );
                  if ( msgid == -1 ) {
                        tool_perror( "ldap_sasl_bind(SIMPLE)", rc,
                              NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL );
                        exit( rc );
                  }
            }

            if ( ldap_result( ld, msgid, LDAP_MSG_ALL, NULL, &result ) == -1 ) {
                  tool_perror( "ldap_result", -1, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL );
                  exit( LDAP_LOCAL_ERROR );
            }

            rc = ldap_parse_result( ld, result, &err, &matched, &info, &refs,
                  &ctrls, 1 );
            if ( rc != LDAP_SUCCESS ) {
                  tool_perror( "ldap_bind parse result", rc, NULL, matched, info, refs );
                  exit( LDAP_LOCAL_ERROR );
            }

#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_PASSWORDPOLICYREQUEST
            if ( ctrls && ppolicy ) {
                  LDAPControl *ctrl;
                  int expire, grace, len = 0;
                  LDAPPasswordPolicyError pErr = -1;
                  
                  ctrl = ldap_control_find( LDAP_CONTROL_PASSWORDPOLICYRESPONSE,
                        ctrls, NULL );

                  if ( ctrl && ldap_parse_passwordpolicy_control( ld, ctrl,
                        &expire, &grace, &pErr ) == LDAP_SUCCESS )
                  {
                        if ( pErr != PP_noError ){
                              msgbuf[0] = ';';
                              msgbuf[1] = ' ';
                              strcpy( msgbuf+2, ldap_passwordpolicy_err2txt( pErr ));
                              len = strlen( msgbuf );
                        }
                        if ( expire >= 0 ) {
                              sprintf( msgbuf+len,
                                    " (Password expires in %d seconds)",
                                    expire );
                        } else if ( grace >= 0 ) {
                              sprintf( msgbuf+len,
                                    " (Password expired, %d grace logins remain)",
                                    grace );
                        }
                  }
            }
#endif

            if ( ctrls ) {
                  ldap_controls_free( ctrls );
            }

            if ( err != LDAP_SUCCESS
                  || msgbuf[0]
                  || ( matched && matched[ 0 ] )
                  || ( info && info[ 0 ] )
                  || refs )
            {
                  tool_perror( "ldap_bind", err, msgbuf, matched, info, refs );

                  if( matched ) ber_memfree( matched );
                  if( info ) ber_memfree( info );
                  if( refs ) ber_memvfree( (void **)refs );

                  if ( err != LDAP_SUCCESS ) exit( err );
            }
      }
}

void
tool_unbind( LDAP *ld )
{
      int err = ldap_set_option( ld, LDAP_OPT_SERVER_CONTROLS, NULL );

      if ( err != LDAP_OPT_SUCCESS ) {
            fprintf( stderr, "Could not unset controls\n");
      }

      (void) ldap_unbind_ext( ld, NULL, NULL );
}


/* Set server controls.  Add controls extra_c[0..count-1], if set. */
void
tool_server_controls( LDAP *ld, LDAPControl *extra_c, int count )
{
      int i = 0, j, crit = 0, err;
      LDAPControl c[16], **ctrls;

      if ( ! ( assertctl
            || authzid
#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_OBSOLETE_PROXY_AUTHZ
            || proxydn
#endif /* LDAP_CONTROL_OBSOLETE_PROXY_AUTHZ */
            || manageDIT
            || manageDSAit
            || noop
#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_PASSWORDPOLICYREQUEST
            || ppolicy
#endif
            || preread
            || postread
#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_X_CHAINING_BEHAVIOR
            || chaining
#endif /* LDAP_CONTROL_X_CHAINING_BEHAVIOR */
#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_X_SESSION_TRACKING
            || sessionTracking
#endif /* LDAP_CONTROL_X_SESSION_TRACKING */
            || count
            || unknown_ctrls_num ) )
      {
            return;
      }

      ctrls = (LDAPControl**) malloc(sizeof(c) + (count + unknown_ctrls_num + 1)*sizeof(LDAPControl*));
      if ( ctrls == NULL ) {
            fprintf( stderr, "No memory\n" );
            exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
      }

      if ( assertctl ) {
            BerElementBuffer berbuf;
            BerElement *ber = (BerElement *)&berbuf;
            
            if( assertion == NULL || *assertion == '\0' ) {
                  fprintf( stderr, "Assertion=<empty>\n" );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }

            ber_init2( ber, NULL, LBER_USE_DER );

            err = ldap_pvt_put_filter( ber, assertion );
            if( err < 0 ) {
                  fprintf( stderr, "assertion encode failed (%d)\n", err );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }

            err = ber_flatten2( ber, &c[i].ldctl_value, 0 );
            if( err < 0 ) {
                  fprintf( stderr, "assertion flatten failed (%d)\n", err );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }

            c[i].ldctl_oid = LDAP_CONTROL_ASSERT;
            c[i].ldctl_iscritical = assertctl > 1;
            ctrls[i] = &c[i];
            i++;
      }

      if ( authzid ) {
            c[i].ldctl_value.bv_val = authzid;
            c[i].ldctl_value.bv_len = strlen( authzid );
            c[i].ldctl_oid = LDAP_CONTROL_PROXY_AUTHZ;
            c[i].ldctl_iscritical = 1;
            ctrls[i] = &c[i];
            i++;
      }

#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_OBSOLETE_PROXY_AUTHZ
      /* NOTE: doesn't need an extra count because it's incompatible
       * with authzid */
      if ( proxydn ) {
            BerElementBuffer berbuf;
            BerElement *ber = (BerElement *)&berbuf;
            
            ber_init2( ber, NULL, LBER_USE_DER );

            if ( ber_printf( ber, "s", proxydn ) == LBER_ERROR ) {
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }

            if ( ber_flatten2( ber, &c[i].ldctl_value, 0 ) == -1 ) {
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }

            c[i].ldctl_oid = LDAP_CONTROL_OBSOLETE_PROXY_AUTHZ;
            c[i].ldctl_iscritical = 1;
            ctrls[i] = &c[i];
            i++;
      }
#endif /* LDAP_CONTROL_OBSOLETE_PROXY_AUTHZ */

      if ( manageDIT ) {
            c[i].ldctl_oid = LDAP_CONTROL_MANAGEDIT;
            BER_BVZERO( &c[i].ldctl_value );
            c[i].ldctl_iscritical = manageDIT > 1;
            ctrls[i] = &c[i];
            i++;
      }

      if ( manageDSAit ) {
            c[i].ldctl_oid = LDAP_CONTROL_MANAGEDSAIT;
            BER_BVZERO( &c[i].ldctl_value );
            c[i].ldctl_iscritical = manageDSAit > 1;
            ctrls[i] = &c[i];
            i++;
      }

      if ( noop ) {
            c[i].ldctl_oid = LDAP_CONTROL_NOOP;
            BER_BVZERO( &c[i].ldctl_value );
            c[i].ldctl_iscritical = noop > 1;
            ctrls[i] = &c[i];
            i++;
      }

#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_PASSWORDPOLICYREQUEST
      if ( ppolicy ) {
            c[i].ldctl_oid = LDAP_CONTROL_PASSWORDPOLICYREQUEST;
            BER_BVZERO( &c[i].ldctl_value );
            c[i].ldctl_iscritical = 0;
            ctrls[i] = &c[i];
            i++;
      }
#endif

      if ( preread ) {
            char berbuf[LBER_ELEMENT_SIZEOF];
            BerElement *ber = (BerElement *)berbuf;
            char **attrs = NULL;

            if( preread_attrs ) {
                  attrs = ldap_str2charray( preread_attrs, "," );
            }

            ber_init2( ber, NULL, LBER_USE_DER );

            if( ber_printf( ber, "{v}", attrs ) == -1 ) {
                  fprintf( stderr, "preread attrs encode failed.\n" );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }

            err = ber_flatten2( ber, &c[i].ldctl_value, 0 );
            if( err < 0 ) {
                  fprintf( stderr, "preread flatten failed (%d)\n", err );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }

            c[i].ldctl_oid = LDAP_CONTROL_PRE_READ;
            c[i].ldctl_iscritical = preread > 1;
            ctrls[i] = &c[i];
            i++;

            if( attrs ) ldap_charray_free( attrs );
      }

      if ( postread ) {
            char berbuf[LBER_ELEMENT_SIZEOF];
            BerElement *ber = (BerElement *)berbuf;
            char **attrs = NULL;

            if( postread_attrs ) {
                  attrs = ldap_str2charray( postread_attrs, "," );
            }

            ber_init2( ber, NULL, LBER_USE_DER );

            if( ber_printf( ber, "{v}", attrs ) == -1 ) {
                  fprintf( stderr, "postread attrs encode failed.\n" );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }

            err = ber_flatten2( ber, &c[i].ldctl_value, 0 );
            if( err < 0 ) {
                  fprintf( stderr, "postread flatten failed (%d)\n", err );
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }

            c[i].ldctl_oid = LDAP_CONTROL_POST_READ;
            c[i].ldctl_iscritical = postread > 1;
            ctrls[i] = &c[i];
            i++;

            if( attrs ) ldap_charray_free( attrs );
      }

#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_X_CHAINING_BEHAVIOR
      if ( chaining ) {
            if ( chainingResolve > -1 ) {
                  BerElementBuffer berbuf;
                  BerElement *ber = (BerElement *)&berbuf;

                  ber_init2( ber, NULL, LBER_USE_DER );

                  err = ber_printf( ber, "{e" /* } */, chainingResolve );
                  if ( err == -1 ) {
                        ber_free( ber, 1 );
                        fprintf( stderr, _("Chaining behavior control encoding error!\n") );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }

                  if ( chainingContinuation > -1 ) {
                        err = ber_printf( ber, "e", chainingContinuation );
                        if ( err == -1 ) {
                              ber_free( ber, 1 );
                              fprintf( stderr, _("Chaining behavior control encoding error!\n") );
                              exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                        }
                  }

                  err = ber_printf( ber, /* { */ "N}" );
                  if ( err == -1 ) {
                        ber_free( ber, 1 );
                        fprintf( stderr, _("Chaining behavior control encoding error!\n") );
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }

                  if ( ber_flatten2( ber, &c[i].ldctl_value, 0 ) == -1 ) {
                        exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
                  }

            } else {
                  BER_BVZERO( &c[i].ldctl_value );
            }

            c[i].ldctl_oid = LDAP_CONTROL_X_CHAINING_BEHAVIOR;
            c[i].ldctl_iscritical = chaining > 1;
            ctrls[i] = &c[i];
            i++;
      }
#endif /* LDAP_CONTROL_X_CHAINING_BEHAVIOR */

#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_X_SESSION_TRACKING
      if ( sessionTracking ) {
            if ( stValue.bv_val == NULL && st_value( ld, &stValue ) ) {
                  exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
            }

            c[i].ldctl_oid = LDAP_CONTROL_X_SESSION_TRACKING;
            c[i].ldctl_iscritical = 0;
            ber_dupbv( &c[i].ldctl_value, &stValue );

            ctrls[i] = &c[i];
            i++;
      }
#endif /* LDAP_CONTROL_X_SESSION_TRACKING */

      while ( count-- ) {
            ctrls[i++] = extra_c++;
      }
      for ( count = 0; count < unknown_ctrls_num; count++ ) {
            ctrls[i++] = &unknown_ctrls[count];
      }
      ctrls[i] = NULL;

      err = ldap_set_option( ld, LDAP_OPT_SERVER_CONTROLS, ctrls );

      if ( err != LDAP_OPT_SUCCESS ) {
            for ( j = 0; j < i; j++ ) {
                  if ( ctrls[j]->ldctl_iscritical ) crit = 1;
            }
            fprintf( stderr, "Could not set %scontrols\n",
                  crit ? "critical " : "" );
      }

      free( ctrls );
      if ( crit ) {
            exit( EXIT_FAILURE );
      }
}

int
tool_check_abandon( LDAP *ld, int msgid )
{
      int   rc;

      switch ( gotintr ) {
      case Intr_Cancel:
            rc = ldap_cancel_s( ld, msgid, NULL, NULL );
            fprintf( stderr, "got interrupt, cancel got %d: %s\n",
                        rc, ldap_err2string( rc ) );
            return -1;

      case Intr_Abandon:
            rc = ldap_abandon_ext( ld, msgid, NULL, NULL );
            fprintf( stderr, "got interrupt, abandon got %d: %s\n",
                        rc, ldap_err2string( rc ) );
            return -1;

      case Intr_Ignore:
            /* just unbind, ignoring the request */
            return -1;
      }

      return 0;
}

static int
print_prepostread( LDAP *ld, LDAPControl *ctrl, struct berval *what)
{
      BerElement  *ber;
      struct berval     bv;

      tool_write_ldif( LDIF_PUT_COMMENT, "==> ",
            what->bv_val, what->bv_len );
      ber = ber_init( &ctrl->ldctl_value );
      if ( ber == NULL ) {
            /* error? */
            return 1;

      } else if ( ber_scanf( ber, "{m{" /*}}*/, &bv ) == LBER_ERROR ) {
            /* error? */
            return 1;

      } else {
            tool_write_ldif( LDIF_PUT_VALUE, "dn", bv.bv_val, bv.bv_len );

            while ( ber_scanf( ber, "{m" /*}*/, &bv ) != LBER_ERROR ) {
                  int         i;
                  BerVarray   vals = NULL;

                  if ( ber_scanf( ber, "[W]", &vals ) == LBER_ERROR ||
                        vals == NULL )
                  {
                        /* error? */
                        return 1;
                  }
            
                  for ( i = 0; vals[ i ].bv_val != NULL; i++ ) {
                        tool_write_ldif(
                              ldif ? LDIF_PUT_COMMENT : LDIF_PUT_VALUE,
                              bv.bv_val, vals[ i ].bv_val, vals[ i ].bv_len );
                  }

                  ber_bvarray_free( vals );
            }
      }

      if ( ber != NULL ) {
            ber_free( ber, 1 );
      }

      tool_write_ldif( LDIF_PUT_COMMENT, "<== ",
            what->bv_val, what->bv_len );

      return 0;
}

static int
print_preread( LDAP *ld, LDAPControl *ctrl )
{
      static struct berval what = BER_BVC( "preread" );

      return print_prepostread( ld, ctrl, &what );
}

static int
print_postread( LDAP *ld, LDAPControl *ctrl )
{
      static struct berval what = BER_BVC( "postread" );

      return print_prepostread( ld, ctrl, &what );
}

static int
print_paged_results( LDAP *ld, LDAPControl *ctrl )
{
      ber_int_t estimate;

      /* note: pr_cookie is being malloced; it's freed
       * the next time the control is sent, but the last
       * time it's not; we don't care too much, because
       * the last time an empty value is returned... */
      if ( ldap_parse_pageresponse_control( ld, ctrl, &estimate, &pr_cookie )
            != LDAP_SUCCESS )
      {
            /* error? */
            return 1;

      } else {
            /* FIXME: check buffer overflow */
            char  buf[ BUFSIZ ], *ptr = buf;

            if ( estimate > 0 ) {
                  ptr += snprintf( ptr, sizeof( buf ) - ( ptr - buf ),
                        "estimate=%d", estimate );
            }

            if ( pr_cookie.bv_len > 0 ) {
                  struct berval     bv;

                  bv.bv_len = LUTIL_BASE64_ENCODE_LEN(
                        pr_cookie.bv_len ) + 1;
                  bv.bv_val = ber_memalloc( bv.bv_len + 1 );

                  bv.bv_len = lutil_b64_ntop(
                        (unsigned char *) pr_cookie.bv_val,
                        pr_cookie.bv_len,
                        bv.bv_val, bv.bv_len );

                  ptr += snprintf( ptr, sizeof( buf ) - ( ptr - buf ),
                        "%scookie=%s", ptr == buf ? "" : " ",
                        bv.bv_val );

                  ber_memfree( bv.bv_val );

                  pr_morePagedResults = 1;

            } else {
                  ptr += snprintf( ptr, sizeof( buf ) - ( ptr - buf ),
                        "%scookie=", ptr == buf ? "" : " " );
            }

            tool_write_ldif( ldif ? LDIF_PUT_COMMENT : LDIF_PUT_VALUE,
                  "pagedresults", buf, ptr - buf );
      }

      return 0;
}

#ifdef LDAP_CONTROL_PASSWORDPOLICYREQUEST
static int
print_ppolicy( LDAP *ld, LDAPControl *ctrl )
{
      int expire = 0, grace = 0, rc;
      LDAPPasswordPolicyError pperr;

      rc = ldap_parse_passwordpolicy_control( ld, ctrl,
            &expire, &grace, &pperr );
      if ( rc == LDAP_SUCCESS ) {
            char  buf[ BUFSIZ ], *ptr = buf;

            if ( expire != -1 ) {
                  ptr += snprintf( ptr, sizeof( buf ) - ( ptr - buf ),
                        "expire=%d", expire );
            }

            if ( grace != -1 ) {
                  ptr += snprintf( ptr, sizeof( buf ) - ( ptr - buf ),
                        "%sgrace=%d", ptr == buf ? "" : " ", grace );
            }

            if ( pperr != PP_noError ) {
                  ptr += snprintf( ptr, sizeof( buf ) - ( ptr - buf ),
                        "%serror=%d (%s)", ptr == buf ? "" : " ",
                        pperr,
                        ldap_passwordpolicy_err2txt( pperr ) );
            }

            tool_write_ldif( ldif ? LDIF_PUT_COMMENT : LDIF_PUT_VALUE,
                  "ppolicy", buf, ptr - buf );
      }

      return rc;
}
#endif

void tool_print_ctrls(
      LDAP        *ld,
      LDAPControl **ctrls )
{
      int   i;
      char  *ptr;

      for ( i = 0; ctrls[i] != NULL; i++ ) {
            /* control: OID criticality base64value */
            struct berval b64 = BER_BVNULL;
            ber_len_t len;
            char *str;
            int j;

            /* FIXME: there might be cases where a control has NULL OID;
             * this makes little sense, especially when returned by the
             * server, but libldap happily allows it */
            if ( ctrls[i]->ldctl_oid == NULL ) {
                  continue;
            }

            len = ldif ? 2 : 0;
            len += strlen( ctrls[i]->ldctl_oid );

            /* add enough for space after OID and the critical value itself */
            len += ctrls[i]->ldctl_iscritical
                  ? sizeof("true") : sizeof("false");

            /* convert to base64 */
            if ( !BER_BVISNULL( &ctrls[i]->ldctl_value ) ) {
                  b64.bv_len = LUTIL_BASE64_ENCODE_LEN(
                        ctrls[i]->ldctl_value.bv_len ) + 1;
                  b64.bv_val = ber_memalloc( b64.bv_len + 1 );

                  b64.bv_len = lutil_b64_ntop(
                        (unsigned char *) ctrls[i]->ldctl_value.bv_val,
                        ctrls[i]->ldctl_value.bv_len,
                        b64.bv_val, b64.bv_len );
            }

            if ( b64.bv_len ) {
                  len += 1 + b64.bv_len;
            }

            ptr = str = malloc( len + 1 );
            if ( ldif ) {
                  ptr = lutil_strcopy( ptr, ": " );
            }
            ptr = lutil_strcopy( ptr, ctrls[i]->ldctl_oid );
            ptr = lutil_strcopy( ptr, ctrls[i]->ldctl_iscritical
                  ? " true" : " false" );

            if ( b64.bv_len ) {
                  ptr = lutil_strcopy( ptr, " " );
                  ptr = lutil_strcopy( ptr, b64.bv_val );
            }

            if ( ldif < 2 ) {
                  tool_write_ldif( ldif ? LDIF_PUT_COMMENT : LDIF_PUT_VALUE,
                        "control", str, len );
            }

            free( str );
            if ( b64.bv_len ) {
                  ber_memfree( b64.bv_val );
            }

            /* known controls */
            for ( j = 0; tool_ctrl_response[j].oid != NULL; j++ ) {
                  if ( strcmp( tool_ctrl_response[j].oid, ctrls[i]->ldctl_oid ) == 0 ) {
                        if ( !tool_ctrl_response[j].mask & tool_type ) {
                              /* this control should not appear
                               * with this tool; warning? */
                        }
                        break;
                  }
            }

            if ( tool_ctrl_response[j].oid != NULL && tool_ctrl_response[j].func ) {
                  (void)tool_ctrl_response[j].func( ld, ctrls[i] );
            }
      }
}

int
tool_write_ldif( int type, char *name, char *value, ber_len_t vallen )
{
      char  *ldif;

      if (( ldif = ldif_put( type, name, value, vallen )) == NULL ) {
            return( -1 );
      }

      fputs( ldif, stdout );
      ber_memfree( ldif );

      return( 0 );
}

int
tool_is_oid( const char *s )
{
      int         first = 1;

      if ( !isdigit( (unsigned char) s[ 0 ] ) ) {
            return 0;
      }

      for ( ; s[ 0 ]; s++ ) {
            if ( s[ 0 ] == '.' ) {
                  if ( s[ 1 ] == '\0' ) {
                        return 0;
                  }
                  first = 1;
                  continue;
            }

            if ( !isdigit( (unsigned char) s[ 0 ] ) ) {
                  return 0;
            }

            if ( first == 1 && s[ 0 ] == '0' && s[ 1 ] != '.' ) {
                  return 0;
            }
            first = 0;
      }

      return 1;
}


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